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The inevitable downside of ageing is the formation of wrinkles. Crow’s feet, smile lines, fine wrinkles and pigmentation are the tell-tale signs that the skin is beginning to age. To combat these problems, it is important to first understand the ageing process of the skin.

The layers of the skin

Layers of the skin


It is the outermost layer of the skin where dead skin is shed and melanin (the pigment that determines our skin colour) is found.


Beneath the epidermis, the dermis consists of a thick layer of connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles and sebaceous glands. However, it comprises 80% of collagen – the protein that performs a supportive function to the skin keeping it firm and youthful-looking.

Subcutaneous Layer

This layer comprises mostly of fat which serves as protection against mechanical damage to internal organs and to keep us warm.

Ageing Process of the Skin

As time passes, wear and tear to theses layers of the skin would lead to wrinkles. There are two primary ageing processes: Intrinsic ageing and Extrinsic ageing

Younger and aging skin

This is the natural ageing that cells experience. Mechanical damage in the form of wear and tear coupled with slower reproduction of worn-out cells would lead to the loss in supportive structures in the skin such as collagen.

Collagen and elastin fibres become thinner causing the constant stretching to the skin to form wrinkles. This is followed by the shrinkage in fat cells and a reduction in sebum production. This will make the skin appear duller and dry making wrinkles more prominent.

By the time we reach the age of 40, collagen production ceases and we begin to lose the fats stored in the subcutaneous layer causing an overall loss in volume leading to sagging skin.

Extrinsic Ageing

Extrinsic ageing occurs when environmental trigger cause damage to be sustained by your skin. These are the causes for the most dramatic signs of ageing deepening wrinkles and dulling the skin.

Repeated expressions and sleeping styles

Expression lines are the wrinkles that form as a result of repeated execution of said expressions i.e. ‘smile lines’ are the crease that forms from the sides of the nose to the corners of the lips when the facial muscles contract to smile. Over time, these wrinkles become permanent.

Sleeping on one side of the face can also increase chances of wrinkles deepening on that side of the face more than the other. Intense rubbing of the eyes and other parts of the face would lead to the break down in collagen fibres leading to wrinkles as a result.


The action of taking a drag of the cigarette activates the purse-string muscles in the face which has a similar effect of repeated muscle action causing expression lines as mentioned above.

Furthermore, nicotine in tobacco products has been found to constrict blood vessels reducing blood flow to the skin. This prevents essential nutrients from being delivered to the skin causing it to eventually become dull and, over time, lose its elasticity leading to more facial wrinkles.


Especially for city dwellers, pollutants that are pumped out into the air by cars and factories show the biggest signs of ageing for the skin. Exhaust, small particulate matter and smog can get lodged in the pores of the skin which damages its structures. If these particulate matters manage to be trapped deeper within the layers of the skin, it may cause the development if pigmentation or age spots.

Exposure to the sun

Lastly, the most well-known cause of wrinkles – photoaging. Daily exposure to ultraviolet rays deep into the skin’s dermal layer causes the breakdown of collagen and elastin fibres leading to the sagging of skin. Other than wrinkles, sun damage can cause sun spots, pigmentation and in extreme cases lead to skin cancer.

How can you take care of your skin?

Keep your skin hydrated

High-quality moisturizer can help stave off dry skin that will eventually form wrinkles. This is especially so due to the high amount of sun exposure we tend to get in Singapore. Drinking at least 8 cups of water is also a good idea to flush out toxins in the body that causes facial wrinkles.

Apply sunscreen daily

Sun damage is the main culprit when it comes to the formation of wrinkles in Singapore. Hence, one must wear sunscreen no matter indoors or outdoors. This is because UVA rays can penetrate glass and are harmful to your skin in the long run.

Get better sleep

When your body gets sufficient rest, it can increase blood flow to the skin which brings the essential nutrients required to continue collagen production keeping your skin firm.

Leave it to the experts

There comes a point where everything has been done yet the wrinkles still keep coming. This is the time to visit a specialist. At Cambridge Therapeutics, we combine high tech equipment with science-based solutions to do the heavy lifting for you.

Neogen Plasma

How does it work?

NeoGen Nitro-Plasma is a cutting-edge skin regeneration treatment that uses plasma to deliver heat to a targeted treatment area without affecting the surrounding tissues.

At high energy levels, Nitrogen Plasma effectively achieves skin tightening, skin contouring, while at lower energy levels, it is used to treat early signs of ageing such as pigmentation, age spots, fine lines and wrinkles. With its unique thermal energy, it can regenerate new skin, replacing old damaged collagen and elastin with controlled precision.


  • Able to treat different indications at the same time (e.g. melasma, pigmentation, spots, acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, etc.)
  • Clinically proven to regenerate skin
  • Does not react to melanin, therefore able to treat darker skin types
  • Safe and effective, with no downtime
  • Pain-free and requires no anaesthetic
  • Able to treat all areas safely, even the upper and lower eyelids with visible improvements for droopy eyelids

Is the treatment painful?

The treatment is 10 – 20 minutes long, is not painful and has virtually no downtime.

How many treatments do I need?

Clients are recommended to come once a month for 5-6 months to ensure long-lasting results.

Read more about Neogen Plasma


How does it work?

Sylfirm is a cutting-edge technology developed in Silicon Valley, USA. It uses RP (repeated ultra-short pulses), a new advancement that reacts only to abnormal tissue membrane. SR3 Technology is the latest SMART generation tech that selectively treats the skin using Regional Regeneration Radio Repeated Pulse. It uses multiple tiny electrodes to send generate a powerful electromagnetic field of energy that safely and effectively penetrates the dermal layer. This safely treats fine wrinkles and brightens skin tone.


  • Short treatment time (treatment is complete in 10 mins)
  • Virtually pain-free
  • Clinically proven results
  • Effective for complex lesions
  • Safe for all skin types
  • NO downtime
  • Minimally invasive

Is the treatment painful?

Sylfirm takes 10 minutes to complete and has no downtime. Pain is minimal and depends on the patient’s skin condition. Majority of patients find the treatment entirely pain-free.

How many treatments do I need?

Results can be seen from a single treatment of Sylfirm. For better results, a program of 5 or more may be suggested, this depends on each individual’s needs.

Read more about SYLFIRM

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